Goal 2: End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture
This goal is a more specific spin-off of the first Millennium Development Goal (MDG), which called for an end to extreme hunger. As with SDG One, this goal is meant to be more all encompassing in its approach to hunger than the MDG by including concepts such as food security and nutrition and removing the word “extreme”. This is an effort to acknowledge that even developed countries face issues of hunger and malnutrition. The most recent data from the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) indicates that 20.5% of Africa’s population is undernourished. Although the prevalence of undernourishment has declined in recent years, from 33.3 percent in 1990-92 to 23.8 percent in 2012-14 in sub-Saharan Africa, the region has also made the least progress where more than one in four people remain undernourished.
A particularly interesting portion of this goal is its focus on sustainable agriculture, which presents itself as a solution to the problem at the beginning of the goal: hunger, food security, and nutrition. It is actually the most emphasized part of the goal in terms of dedicated targets, with 2.3, 2.4, 2.5, 2.a, and 2.b all directly addressing agriculture (see all proposed targets below). This emphasis on agriculture is important for Africa, as according to the Africa Economic Outlook Report 2015, the agricultural sector employs the majority of sub-Saharan Africa’s labour force. As in many other developing countries, this implies that this goal is likely to have an impact on a very large cross-section of the population.
2.1 By 2030, end hunger and ensure access by all people, in particular the poor and people in vulnerable situations, including infants, to safe, nutritious and sufficient food all year round
2.2 By 2030, end all forms of malnutrition, including achieving, by 2025, the internationally agreed targets on stunting and wasting in children under 5 years of age, and address the nutritional needs of adolescent girls, pregnant and lactating women and older persons
2.3 By 2030, double the agricultural productivity and incomes of small-scale food producers, in particular women, indigenous peoples, family farmers, pastoralists and fishers, including through secure and equal access to land, other productive resources and inputs, knowledge, financial services, markets and opportunities for value addition and non-farm employment
2.4 By 2030, ensure sustainable food production systems and implement resilient agricultural practices that increase productivity and production, that help maintain ecosystems, that strengthen capacity for adaptation to climate change, extreme weather, drought, flooding and other disasters and that progressively improve land and soil quality
2.5 By 2020, maintain the genetic diversity of seeds, cultivated plants and farmed and domesticated animals and their related wild species, including through soundly managed and diversified seed and plant banks at the national, regional and international levels, and ensure access to and fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from the utilization of genetic resources and associated traditional knowledge, as internationally agreed
2.a Increase investment, including through enhanced international cooperation, in rural infrastructure, agricultural research and extension services, technology development and plant and livestock gene banks in order to enhance agricultural productive capacity in developing countries, in particular least developed countries
2.b Correct and prevent trade restrictions and distortions in world agricultural markets, including through the parallel elimination of all forms of agricultural export subsidies and all export measures with equivalent effect, in accordance with the mandate of the Doha Development Round
2.c Adopt measures to ensure the proper functioning of food commodity markets and their derivatives and facilitate timely access to market information, including on food reserves, in order to help limit extreme food price volatility
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