Goal Seven: Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all
This SDG is the first that really doesn’t seem to originate in any direct way from the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), which is likely due to the particular focus of this agenda on the sustainability aspect of development rather than development in general. The first target of this goal calls for increased access to modern energy services, such as electricity. In East Africa as of 2012, 15.3% of Tanzania’s population had access to electricity, 18.2% had access in Uganda, 18% in Rwanda, 6.5% in Rwanda and 23% in Kenya which is closest to the continental average of 24%.
The second target under this goal is to increase the share of renewable energy in the global energy mix. Africa certainly seems to be on track with this. According to the International Renewable Energy Agency’s “Africa 2030” report, the use of renewable energy has the potential to grow from about 5% in Africa to 22% by 2030. Furthermore, at the COP21 United Nations climate talks in Paris, the African Renewable Energy Initiative (AREI) was launched, aiming to formalize the continent’s desire to increase its renewable energy capacity by as much as 300 GW — twice the continent’s total current electricity supply.
A particularly interesting aspect of this goal is its call for improved energy efficiency, focusing not just on how many people are able to use these resources, but also how well they are being managed and utilized. Other targets focus on improving international cooperation to facilitate access to and promoting investment in clean energy – which has also began to see some results in Africa with France committing to provide 2 billion euros for renewable energy in Africa between 2016 and 2020 at COP 21- and expanding infrastructure and upgrading technology for the supply of modern sustainable energy.
7.1 By 2030, ensure universal access to affordable, reliable and modern energy services
7.2 By 2030, increase substantially the share of renewable energy in the global energy mix
7.3 By 2030, double the global rate of improvement in energy efficiency
7.a By 2030, enhance international cooperation to facilitate access to clean energy research and technology, including renewable energy, energy efficiency and advanced and cleaner fossil-fuel technology, and promote investment in energy infrastructure and clean energy technology
7.b By 2030, expand infrastructure and upgrade technology for supplying modern and sustainable energy services for all in developing countries, in particular least developed countries and small island developing States