Goal Nine: Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and foster innovation
SDG Nine focuses on the physical elements that surround the global population, which are integral in achieving sustainable development, but can be forgotten when weighed against issues such as healthcare and poverty. This goal emphasizes not only the most commonly thought of forms of infrastructure, such as roads and railways, but also the more modern versions such as internet access. Africa currently has approximately 330 million internet users with a 29% penetration rate on the continent and the numbers are growing. Still, this is relatively low in comparison to the rest of the world, with penetration rates of 40% in Asia, 73% in Europe, 52% in the Middle East and 55% in Latin America, for example. The upward progress, however, is a good sign for achieving the target of universal access.
This goal also emphasizes the need to increase industrialization, especially in developing country contexts. This is particularly relevant for Africa, with most countries in sub-Saharan Africa’s manufacturing share of output having fallen during the past 25 years. Some countries are already making significant progress, however, with Ethiopia’s manufacturing having grown at a rate of approximately 10% per year from 2006-2014, for example. Tanzania has also experienced growth in manufacturing output at 7.5% per year from 2007-2012.
9.1 Develop quality, reliable, sustainable and resilient infrastructure, including regional and transborder infrastructure, to support economic development and human well-being, with a focus on affordable and equitable access for all
9.2 Promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and, by 2030, significantly raise industry’s share of employment and gross domestic product, in line with national circumstances, and double its share in least developed countries
9.3 Increase the access of small-scale industrial and other enterprises, in particular in developing countries, to financial services, including affordable credit, and their integration into value chains and markets
9.4 By 2030, upgrade infrastructure and retrofit industries to make them sustainable, with increased resource-use efficiency and greater adoption of clean and environmentally sound technologies and industrial processes, with all countries taking action in accordance with their respective capabilities
9.5 Enhance scientific research, upgrade the technological capabilities of industrial sectors in all countries, in particular developing countries, including, by 2030, encouraging innovation and substantially increasing the number of research and development workers per 1 million people and public and private research and development spending
9.a Facilitate sustainable and resilient infrastructure development in developing countries through enhanced financial, technological and technical support to African countries, least developed countries, landlocked developing countries and small island developing States
9.b Support domestic technology development, research and innovation in d4eveloping countries, including by ensuring a conducive policy environment for, inter alia, industrial diversification and value addition to commodities
9.c Significantly increase access to information and communications technology and strive to provide universal and affordable access to the Internet in least developed countries by 2020