Goal Ten: Reduce inequality within and among countries
This goal represents a key difference between the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), as it is targeted at equality for populations within countries, as well as between different countries globally rather than just looking at aggregate measurements of progress towards each of the goals. For example, Goal Eight has targets emphasizing overall economic growth, whereas this goal mentions specifically improving income growth for the bottom 40 percent of the population. This type of data is not readily available just yet, but a World Bank report on shared prosperity did indicate that Tanzania is currently achieving target 10.1 with income growth of the bottom 40 percent higher than the national average. The annualized growth rate in average income per capita using data from 2002 to 2012 for the total population was 9.11%, while it was 9.76% for the bottom 40 percent. The data indicates that this is not the case for the rest of Africa, where the growth rate for the total population was 3.7% in 2015 and it was only 3.23% for the bottom 40 percent of the population.
Most of the other targets for this goal focus on implementing policies that are nondiscriminatory and encourage equality in both outcomes and opportunities. They are mostly qualitative in nature, making it difficult to show data to indicate the current state of affairs in Africa. Some of the targets, such as 10.2 and 10.6, relate very closely to targets under SDG Sixteen, which will be discussed in greater detail in a later post, and indicate the interconnected nature of the SDGs. This also indicates that many of the issues are multifaceted and cannot be siloed.
10.1 By 2030, progressively achieve and sustain income growth of the bottom 40 per cent of the population at a rate higher than the national average
10.2 By 2030, empower and promote the social, economic and political inclusion of all, irrespective of age, sex, disability, race, ethnicity, origin, religion or economic or other status
10.3 Ensure equal opportunity and reduce inequalities of outcome, including by eliminating discriminatory laws, policies and practices and promoting appropriate legislation, policies and action in this regard
10.4 Adopt policies, especially fiscal, wage and social protection policies, and progressively achieve greater equality
10.5 Improve the regulation and monitoring of global financial markets and institutions and strengthen the implementation of such regulations
10.6 Ensure enhanced representation and voice for developing countries in decisionmaking in global international economic and financial institutions in order to deliver more effective, credible, accountable and legitimate institutions
10.7 Facilitate orderly, safe, regular and responsible migration and mobility of people, including through the implementation of planned and well-managed migration policies
10.a Implement the principle of special and different treatment for developing countries, in particular least developed countries, in accordance with World Trade Organization agreements
10.b Encourage official development assistance and financial flows, including foreign direct investment, to States where the need is greatest, in particular least developed countries, African countries, small island developing States and landlocked developing countries, in accordance with their national plans and programmes
10.c By 2030, reduce to less than 3 per cent the transaction costs of migrant remittances and eliminate remittance corridors with costs higher than 5 per cent.