To enable a diverse and thriving civil society, tax deductible charitable contributions should be introduced

By Dr. Gwamaka Kifukwe

In recent years, there has been a growing appreciation that business (and the private sector more generally) can and should have a greater role to play in a society’s well-being and progress. The traditional view that “the only thing that matters is the bottom line” ultimately still applies, however there is a growing appreciation regarding just how that bottom line is met. As a result, economic activities and organisations can no longer be viewed as separable from broader society. Globally has been most evident in concerns regarding environmental protection and abusive labour practices. These concerns have been on the rise since the 1970s and are increasingly part of our thinking around fairness and equality.Donations Accepted

One example of this is the growth of CSR – Corporate Social Responsibility. Ostensibly, this concept treats a business or company as a ‘citizen’, complete with responsibilities to the community within-which it operates. This has ranged from charitable donations, to ‘community days’ among others. However, to truly mobilise the skills and competencies contained within the private sphere, more needs to be done.

One approach that has been adopted in some parts of the world is to make social and charitable contributions tax deductible. Embracing this could be vital in supporting, not only socio-welfare initiatives (ranging from scholarships and volunteer programmes to the provision of medical support), but may also be used to support research institutions, the arts (theatre, music, crafts-men and -women, painters, dance, etc.), museums, etc., that form part of the richness of a society. The range of possibilities can only be viewed as a win-win for all stakeholders. The growing interaction can lead to new business ideas, to skills transfer, to increased awareness of broader issues and concerns beyond the silos within-which people find themselves in.

In addition, by enabling the private sector to choose how and where its contributions go, we encourage a sense of community based on solidarity (charitable contributions) by unlocking private generosity, rather than just on government obligation (taxes).

Operationalising this is, in principle, relatively simple:

  1. Social-welfare projects, social enterprises, charities, and other non-profit organisations register with the government and are vetted for their social impact potential, and alignment with government policy objectives.
  2. A private organisation will provide contributions to an approved charity and file the same amount with the government revenue or taxation authority.
  3. Following inspection and verification, this amount is deducted from the taxes owed to the government revenue or taxation authority.

This cannot and should not replace government-managed initiatives (which in turn could also be listed as eligible options for tax-deductible contributions). Rather, this should be viewed as complimentary to the broader societal aspirations entrusted to government. In the framework outlined above, all major actors (civil society, private, and public sectors) are involved, which prevents the rise of ‘philanthropists-as-kings’ and created parallel governance structures.

The approach encourages creative problem solving to social needs on the part of the communities themselves. This in turn tends to lead to more localised or sector-specific solutions. Some of these solutions are highly experimental, which discourages public financing due to a high risk of failure. Another benefit to government is that the burden for identifying and monitoring interventions is lessened, while the choice of organisations that are supported through this mechanism provides signals about what is both appreciated, and where interventions are yielding results.

For this to work, not only would a change in policy to allow tax-deductible contributions be required but also regulation of the sector, and mechanisms for registering and vetting eligible non-profit organisations. Tax and revenue authorities would need to coordinate with authorities responsible for regulating the non-profit sector, as well as with regional authorities and local governments to follow-up on the effective use of contributions. The administration involved should be streamlined and kept simple to avoid rendering this route unfeasible because of an over-burdening bureaucracy.

As African businesses are beginning to really spread their wings and take off, perhaps it is time for how we in Africa relate to the private sector, and how we incorporate them into our development visions and aspirations. There is already a growing number of home-grown philanthropists treading new grounds, but these are few and far between – by permitting tax deductible contributions, all Africans (and African businesses) can better contribute to our collective welfare and transformation.

Newly Appointed District Commissioners, Directors of Local Government Authorities urged to take a Disciplined Approach to Leadership

UONGOZI Institute and the President’s Office, Regional Administration and Local Government’s five-day Leadership Programme for the newly appointed District Commissioners (DCs) and Directors of Local Government Authorities concluded on Friday 12th October, 2018.

The closing ceremony was officiated by the Minister of State in the President’s Office, Regional Administration and Local Government, Hon. Selemani Said Jafo (MP).

The programme covered nine leadership modules, including Leadership vs Management, Personal Leadership and Emotional Intelligence, Harmonious Political Administrative Interface, Structure of the Government, Peace and Security, Protocol and Etiquettes, Risk Management and Internal Control, Control of Illegal Substances/Drugs, and Effective Management of Public Resources.

In his address, Minister Jafo stated that the programme serves as a leadership induction for the newly DCs and Directors of Local Government Authorities.

“We thought that since you have recently been appointed, it would be ideal to take you through the ABCs of leadership. The aim here is to create a common understanding of how things are executed.”

Minister Jafo further advised DCs and Directors of Local Government Authorities to ensure they put the knowledge gained through the programme into practice.

On observing the importance of disciplined leadership in achieving results, Minister Jafo said, “I urge you to avoid insubordination. Leaders who take a disciplined approach to leading are always able to inspire action, drive change, and achieve results.”

Furthermore, Minister Jafo said that in the current Nation’s Budget, about 21% has been allocated to Regional Administration and Local Government, and therefore, without disciplined leaders effective management of resources will not be realised. He advised the DCs and Directors of Local Government Authorities to “be creative, identify available resources and ensure effective management of those resources.”

Speaking on behalf of the CEO, Mr. Kadari Singo, Head of Executive Education at UONGOZI Institute said the programme was designed to equip DCs and District Commissioners with tools and perspectives to make well-considered strategic decisions and lead transformation.

“During the programme, participants were exposed to leadership theories and best practices to help them master complex challenges in their work areas, capitalise on emerging opportunities and ensure effective management of resources.”

Mr. Singo futher noted that the programme was the fifth leadership workshop of its kind organised for DCs and Directors of Local Government Authorities. He said that in the past, similar workshops were organised between 2017 and early 2018, where the majority of DCs and Directors of Local Government Authorities in the country participated.

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Hon. Selemani Said Jafo (MP) during his address.

 

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Eng. Mussa Iyombe, Permanent Secretary, President’s Office, Regional Administration and Local Government speaking during the Closing Ceremony.

 

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Mr. Kadari Singo, Head of Executive Education Department at UONGOZI Institute delivers welcoming remarks on behalf of the CEO.

 

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District Commissioners and Directors of Local Government Authorities following a presentation on Control of Illegal Substances/Drugs.

UONGOZI Institute facilitates a Session in the Seminar for Parliamentary Leadership

UONGOZI Institute was invited to facilitate a session on the theoretical aspects of leadership at a two-day leadership training seminar organised by the Office of the National Assembly of Tanzania for Chairpersons and Deputy Chairpersons of all the Parliamentary Standing Committees as well as members of the Parliamentary Service Commission on 16th and 17th August, 2018.

The seminar was officiated by the Speaker of the National Assembly of Tanzania, Hon. Job Ndugai (MP). Two former Speakers of the Union Parliament, and one former Speaker of the Zanzibar House of Representatives were in attendance; Hon. Pius Msekwa and Hon. Anne Makinda, and Hon. Pandu Kificho, respectively. The Speaker of the Zanzibar House of Representatives, Hon. Zuber A. Maulid, and the Deputy Speaker of the National Assembly of Tanzania, Hon. Dr. Tulia Ackson (MP) were also present.

The seminar took participants through several leadership development components, including personal leadership, ethics and good governance; managing conflicts of interest; protocol and etiquettes; and the role of parliamentary leadership in the peace and security of the nation.

As part of the session facilitated by UONGOZI Institute, the CEO of the Institute, Prof. Joseph Semboja delivered a presentation, which expounded on the concept of “leadership” and leadership skills.

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The Speaker of the National Assembly of Tanzania, Hon. Job Yustino Ndugai (MP) officiating the seminar.

 

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The Clerk of the National Assembly of Tanzania, Mr. Stephen Kagaigai delivers welcoming remarks.

 

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The CEO of UONGOZI Institute, Prof. Joseph Semboja during his presentation.

 

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Participants during the Seminar.

 

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A group photo after the opening ceremony.

 

Senior Management Team of TANAPA Participates in the Leadership Programme

The Senior Management Team of the Tanzania National Parks Authority (TANAPA) participated in a three-day leadership workshop organised by UONGOZI Institute from the 11th – 13th August, 2018.

During the workshop, TANAPA’s Senior Management Team was taken through three leadership development modules, namely Personal Leadership and Emotional Intelligence, Leading for Results, and the Structure of the Government of Tanzania.

Participants also reflected on role of TANAPA in the structure of the Tanzanian Government and in public service delivery.

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Mr. Kadari Singo, Head of Executive Education at UONGOZI Institute making a presentation on Personal Leadership.

 

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One of the participants contributes in a discussion.

 

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Participants follow a presentation during the workshop.

 

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Participant delivers a presentation on behalf of her group.

Winner of 2018 Leadership Essay Competition Announced

UONGOZI Institute is pleased to congratulate Mr. Victor Ayal Ndede from Kenya for winning the 2018 African Youth Leadership Essay Competition. This competition was organised in order to provide a space for the youth of Africa to contribute to important discussions about leadership.

The top three winners were invited to the African Leadership Forum co-convened by H.E. Benjamin Mkapa, former President of the United Republic of Tanzania in Kigali, Rwanda from Thursday 02nd August, 2018 to Friday 03rd August, 2018. They also attended the African Leadership Forum Gala Dinner on the 02nd where the overall winner and runners-up were announced at an award ceremony officiated by H.E. Joaquim Chissano, former President of the Republic of Mozambique. The overall winner received a prize of $2,000. Cash prizes and certificates were also awarded to each runner-up.

The competition was open to all African citizens between the age of 18 – 25 years old. Contestants were asked to answer the following question in their essays:

“If you were an African leader how would you finance development and transformation?”

Over 2,000 essays from 36 African countries were received and rigorously evaluated using the following criteria:

  • Originality, creativity, critical thinking (10 points)
  • Structure, organization/logical flow (3 points)
  • Content addressing the question above (7 points)

The highest scoring essays determined the top three winners, as follows:

Overall winner:

Victor Ayal Ndede – Kenya

1st Runner-up:

Janeth Justinean Lambert – Tanzania

2nd Runner-up:

Hope Katanu Mutie – Kenya

UONGOZI Institute would like to thank each one of the 2,000+ young African citizens who participated in this year’s competition.

READ THE WINNING ESSAY HERE: Emancipating the Giant: The African Renaissance

 

Overall Winner
Mr. Victor Ayal Ndede (left) receives an award as overall winner of the 2018 UONGOZI Institute Leadership Essay Competition from the former President of the Republic of Mozambique, H.E. Joaquim Chissano (right).

 

First Runner up
Ms. Janeth Justinean Lambert, first runner-up of the 2018 UONGOZI Institute Leadership Essay Competition (left) receives her award.

 

Second Runner up
Ms. Hope Katanu Mutie, second runner-up of the 2018 UONGOZI Institute Leadership Essay Competition (left) receives her award.

“Africa can Finance its own Development”, President Kagame

The fifth African Leadership Forum (ALF), hosted by the former President of the United Republic of Tanzania, H.E. Benjamin William Mkapa, and organised by UONGOZI Institute took place in Kigali, Rwanda from Thursday 02nd August, 2018 to Friday 03rd August, 2018.

This year, the ALF, under the theme “Financing Africa’s Transformation for Sustainable Development” sought to provide a platform to deliberate on the prospect of increased, improved, and effective financing for Africa’s transformation.

The Keynote Address was delivered by H.E. Paul Kagame, President of the Republic of Rwanda. Five former African Heads of State were in attendance, including H.E. Joaquim Chissano, former President of the Republic of Mozambique; H.E. Olusegun Obasanjo, former President of the Federal Republic of Nigeria; H.E. Armando Guebuza, former President of the Republic of Mozambique; H.E. Moncef Marzouki, former President of the Republic of Tunisia; and H.E. Hassan Sheikh Mohamud, former President of the Republic of Somalia. The Forum was also attended by over 100 distinguished leaders from the public sector, private sector, academia and civil society.

In his welcoming remarks, H.E. Benjamin Mkapa underscored the importance of the Forum’s topic.

He stated, “In last year’s Forum, we discussed security as the key to sustainable development in Africa. This year, we decided to go further. Development requires investment; investment in philosophy, investment in organisation, investment in vision, and above all, investment in capital.”

President Mkapa added, “We thought we should exchange views on how to mobilise investment for sustainable development in our countries. The aim is to see how we can accelerate the process of economic transformation.”

In his address, President Paul Kagame stressed that Africa can finance its own development. He urged that Africa has everything it needs, and the means to acquire whatever it lacks.

“There is no doubt that Africa can finance its own development. We know this because Africa finances other people’s development, and always has,” he said.

He continued, “But we have to take responsibility for misallocation of Africa’s resources and take steps to correct that. I would rather argue that we need to mobilise the right mindset rather than more funding.”

President Kagame further mentioned three prerequisites for accelerating economic transformation in Africa.

“First, accountability, this is the foundation of good politics, which is effective and citizen-focused,” he stated, and then added, “Second, regional integration, working together across our continent. The success of financial reform of the African Union adopted in 2016 shows that Africa has the will and ability to fund common priorities.”

President Kagame concluded that the third prerequisite is the enabling of African businesses to grow and create jobs for young people.

“This is about improving the regulatory climate for enterprise and trade, building deeper capital in markets, lowering the high cost of sending remittances and changing the mindset of our youth,” he added.

Similar to previous events, the ALF 2018 was held under Chatham House Rules, whereby participants are able to speak candidly without concerns for being personally misquoted for the views expressed.

Under the overarching theme, the Forum considered three sub-themes, namely Domestic Resource Mobilisation, Halting Illicit Financial Flows, and the Global Development Financing Architecture.

Speakers at the event included Dr. Vera Songwe, Executive Secretary of the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa; Dr. Donald Kaberuka, former President of the African Development Bank; Prof. Njuguna Ndung’u, former Governor of the Central Bank of Kenya; Dr. Mukhisa Kituyi, Secretary General of the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development; and Amb. Dr. Yonov Frederick Agah, Deputy Director General, World Trade Organization.

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H.E. Paul Kagame, President of the Republic of Rwanda, delivers keynote address at the ALF 2018.

 

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H.E. Benjamin Mkapa, former President of the United Republic of Tanzania gives welcoming remarks at the ALF 2018.

 

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Plenary Session on “Financing Africa’s Transformation for Sustainable Development”. From left to right, H.E. Benjamin Mkapa, former President of the United Republic of Tanzania; H.E. Paul Kagame, President of the Republic of Rwanda; H.E. Hassan Sheikh Mohamud, former President of the Republic of Somalia; and Dr. Mukhisa Kituyi, Secretary General, United Nations Conference on Trade and Development.

 

Domestic Resource Mobilisation
Panel Session on “Domestic Resource Mobilisation session”. From left to right, Ms. Julie Gichuru (Moderator); Prof. Njuguna Ndung’u, former Governor of the Central Bank of Kenya; H.E. Mohamed Moncef Marzouki, former President of the Republic of Tunisia; H.E. Armando Guebuza, former President of the Republic of Mozambique; and Mr. Ali Mufuruki, Chairman & CEO of the Infotech Investment Group Ltd. Tanzania.

 

Last Session
Panel Session on “Halting Illicit Financial Flows”. From left to right, Ms. Julie Gichuru (Moderator); Dr. Vera Songwe, Executive Secretary of the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa; H.E. Olusegun Obasanjo, former President of the Federal Republic of Nigeria; H.E. Joaquim Chissano, former President of the Republic of Mozambique; and Amb. Dr. Yonov Frederick Agah, Deputy Director General of the World Trade Organization.

 

Day 2 Session
Panel Session on “The Global Development Financing Architecture”. From left to right, Ms. Julie Gichuru (Moderator); Dr. Donald Kaberuka, former President of the African Development Bank Group; H.E. Hassan Mohamud, former President of the Republic of Somalia; H.E. Benjamin Mkapa, former President of the United Republic of Tanzania; and Hon. John Rwangombwa, Governor of the Bank of Rwanda.

 

Minister Mpango urges State Owned Enterprises to Play their Part for Effective Industrial Development

Minister MpangoThe Minister of Finance and Planning, Hon. Dr. Philip Mpango (MP) officiated a National Roundtable Dialogue today on “The Role of State Owned Enterprises (SOEs) in Implementing the Industrialisation Agenda”.

The dialogue, which was organised by UONGOZI Institute in collaboration with the Office of the Treasury Registrar in the Ministry of Finance and Planning, brought together over fifty State Owned Enterprise Board Chairpersons and Chief Executives to deliberate on the role of SOEs in contributing towards the country’s goal of becoming a middle-income, semi-industrialised country by 2025.

In his address, Hon. Dr. Mpango noted that the Dialogue’s theme fits in well with the main agenda of the Fifth Phase Government.

“The Government’s goal is to ensure that Tanzania becomes a middle-income country by 2025, through industrial development,” he said, “we have set targets for the contribution of the industrial sector to the economy to increase by 10% per year and for manufacturing exports to increase by 30% by 2020.”

Hon. Dr. Mpango further emphasised on the importance of events such as these in providing a platform for discussion in order to further progress towards sustainable development.

“This symposium is important both for you and for the Government, for it gives you an opportunity to share ideas and experiences on how public corporations can participate in industrial development, and economic development in general,” he stated, addressing the heads of SOEs.

Hon. Dr. Mpango further urged Heads of SOEs to invest in research and technology, and seize opportunities for effective industrial development. He further urged them to invest time in learning from others, both locally and internationally, that have achieved success.

According to Mr. Kadari Singo, speaking on behalf of the CEO of UONGOZI Institute, the Dialogue ultimately intended to examine the role of SOEs and their contribution in the implementation of the industrialisation agenda.

“Industrialisation is a complex process that needs, among others, broader and effective participation of all stakeholders. SOEs are a critical stakeholder in this process,” he said, “It is our hope that contributions and recommendations from this Dialogue will inform policies, plans and strategies to accelerate industrial development in the country.”

To kick-start the discussions, a keynote presentation on lessons to be learned from East Asia was delivered by Dr. John Page, Senior Fellow in the Global Economy and Development Program at the Brookings Institution in Washington, D.C.

Subsequent presentations and discussions focused on lessons from other countries, how SOEs can take advantage of the opportunities emerging during the process of industrialisation, and how SOEs can meet the challenges arising from the process of industrialisation.

Zanzibar Chief Secretary Officiates Regional Executive Programme on Negotiation Skills

The Chief Secretary of the Revolutionary Government of Zanzibar, Dr. Abdulhamid Yahya Mzee, officiated a six-day regional Negotiation Skills executive programme for senior officials from Tanzania (mainland and Zanzibar), Uganda, Rwanda, Ghana, Nigeria and Namibia today.

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Mr. Kadari Singo, Head of Executive Education for UONGOZI Institute welcomes participants on behalf of the CEO. Seated at the High Table are Dr. Abdulhamid Yahya Mzee, Zanzibar Chief Secretary (Centre); Deputy Permanent Secretary, Ministry of Lands, Water, Energy and Environment, Dr. Tahir M. Abdulla (Left) , and Mr. Jay Park, training facilitator, from the International Senior Lawyers Project (Right).

Organised by UONGOZI Institute in collaboration with the International Senior Lawyers Project, the executive programme aims to equip the leaders with the necessary skills and techniques to negotiate and secure lucrative deals in the oil and gas industry that will reap substantial benefits for their nations and the African continent.

In his opening speech, Chief Secretary Dr. Mzee highlighted the timeliness of the training, with Tanzania currently settling the foundations to make the best use of discoveries for the development of the country.

“Such investments and the byproducts have the potential to not only create jobs for Tanzanians, but to bring in significant revenues from the export sale of the gas,” said Dr. Mzee.

He went on to note that this requires complex negotiations, necessitating training programmes such as this to ensure that the outcome of those negotiations provide optimal benefits to African nations.

On behalf of the CEO of UONGOZI Institute, the Head of Capacity Building at UONGOZI Institute, Mr. Kadari Singo said through the training, participants’ understanding of the sector and its complexities, as well as negotiation capacities in oil and natural gas commercial contracts and investments deals will be strengthened.

“This is the second year that we are running a regional programme on negotiation skills,” he explained, “UONGOZI Institute runs several executive education programmes throughout the year on negotiation skills for natural resources, and we feel that it is important that these skills are also built at a regional level, which brings us to this course.”

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A selection of the participants of the regional Executive Programme on Negotiation Skills
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A participant from Uganda introduces herself to the class
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Group photo of the participants of the Executive Programme on Negotiation Skills. Seated at the front row are  Dr. Abdulhamid Yahya Mzee, Zanzibar Chief Secretary (2nd right); Mr. Kadari Singo, Head of Executive Education, UONGOZI Institute (far right); Deputy PS, Ministry of Lands, Water, Energy and Environment, Dr. Tahir M. Abdulla (far left), and Mr. Jay Parks, Facilitator, ISLP (second left)

African Leaders and the AU Encouraged to Address Peace and Security Challenges in Africa

African Leaders Encouraged
From left to right, H.E. Thabo Mbeki, H.E. Benjamin Mkapa and H.E. Hassan Sheikh Mohamud

On 17th May, 2018 former Presidents H.E. Benjamin Mkapa of Tanzania, H.E. Thabo Mbeki of South Africa and H.E. Hassan Sheikh Mohamud of Somalia and about forty peace and security high-level practitioners and experts from across Africa gathered in Dar es Salaam to discuss Africa’s position in the global peace and security architecture.

The Meeting which was organised by the Office of the Former President of the United Republic of Tanzania, H.E. Benjamin Mkapa and UONGOZI Institute was themed “Africa in the Global Peace and Security Architecture – Overcoming Gridlocks to Peace”.

The Meeting served as a continuation of the African Leadership Forum (ALF) convened in Johannesburg, South Africa in August, 2017, by H.E. Mkapa and H.E. Mbeki and attended by five other former African Heads of State, including H.E. Olusegun Mathew Obasanjo of Nigeria; H.E. Elson Bakili Muluzi of Malawi; H.E. Mohamed Moncef Marzouki of Tunisia; H.E. Jakaya Mrisho Kikwete of Tanzania; and H.E. Hassan Sheikh Mohamud of Somalia.

The Meeting focused on two specific conflict areas in the region, the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and the Federal Republic of Somalia and used Chatham House Rules to facilitate free and honest exchange.

The Meeting noted and applauded the growing role that the African Union (AU) and African institutions are playing in fostering peace and security in the Continent. Nevertheless, it noted that challenges remain and that a doubling of effort is necessary.

Commenting on the Meeting’s recommendations, H.E. Mkapa pointed out the need of streamlining peace and security structures in the African Union (AU) and other African regional blocs, as well as increasing collaboration with United Nations (UN) peace and security structures.

He stated, “It is critically important for the AU to present a unified voice in the international arena, however, the collaboration between AU and UN is essential to address key peace and security challenges in the African countries by learning UN’s experience.”

On his part, H.E. Mbeki elucidated on why the Meeting selected only two cases, Somalia and DRC.

He argued, “The Meeting wanted as practical results as possible, it could not discuss too many countries or examples, that is why two cases were chosen. Somalia case is important because it raises a question of the struggle against terrorism. As for the DRC, it borders nine African countries, and conflict in the DRC necessarily has semi-continental impact.”

He added, “The Meeting results will be fed into the processes taking place at the AU to help realise the organisation’s vision such as what is called ‘silencing the guns by 2020’.”

Relating with the experience in Somalia, after decades of military rule and dictatorship and civil war, H. E. Mohamud recognized that education is fundamental for ensuring that citizens understand the concepts of good governance and rule of law, but that this is not enough.

He said, “First and foremost, Africa’s leadership must lead by example. Leaders must follow the rules and act on citizens’ interests.”

The Executive Secretary of the International Conference on the Great Lakes Region (ICGLR), Amb. Zachary Muburi Muita emphasised on the need for regional leaders to work together on matters of peace and security.

He stated, “If one country explodes, the fire burns the neighbours immediately. And if there is peace and prosperity in one of the countries especially a central country like the DRC, the prosperity is going to spill over immediately to the neighbourhood.”

He further stated, “Thus, there is a need for political leaders, in a brotherly manner, to engage on matters of their neighbour(s) with the intention of finding African solutions to the African problems.”

The Meeting concluded with the following recommendations to Africa’s Leaders and the AU in order to address key peace and security challenges on the continent:

  1. Strengthening the continent’s institutions tasked with peace and security matters;
  2. Strengthening in-country frameworks for stakeholder engagement and consultation, and ensuring inclusive national discourse;
  3. Increasing collaboration among national, regional and continental organs and frameworks contributing to conflict prevention and peace enforcement;
  4. Streamlining and increasing collaboration with the United Nations peace and security structures, including the UN Security Council, and learning from their experience;
  5. Promoting universal accession and implementation of the African Peer Review Mechanism as an essential tool for ensuring good governance, strong national level dialogue and inclusiveness;
  6. Encouraging burden sharing, including financing of the peace and security effort by African governments.

A comprehensive report from the discussion will be forwarded to the AU Secretariat in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia as the Forum’s contribution to the organisation’s effort to drive the peace and security standing across the African continent.