“Uongozi” means leadership in Kiswahili, and inspiring and strengthening leadership is the core purpose of our organisation. Based in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, UONGOZI Institute is dedicated to supporting African leaders to attain sustainable development for their nations and for Africa. We seek to inspire leaders and promote the recognition of the important role of leadership in sustainable development.
The Institute is a government agency established by the Government of Tanzania and supported by the Government of Finland.
Mtoto Benjamin William Mkapa, alifundishwa kupika chakula na mama mzazi Stephania akiwa mdogo. Alipokwenda shule hapo kijijini Lupaso, Ndanda na hatimaye St. Francis Pugu na Makerere, alifundishwa kupika, kufinyanga, kubuni na kuchambua mawazo na kuyaweka sawa kama msomi mbunifu na mwandishi. Kitabu hiki ni zao la mpishi wa mawazo mahiri aliyebobea. Ni kitabu cha kurasa mia tatu na kumi na tisa, katika sura ya kumi na sita. Kuna utangulizi ulioandikwa na Mheshimiwa Joaquim Chissano, Rais mstaafu wa Msumbiji, Pia kuna picha nyinge nzuri, na viambatisho viwili. Mchapaji Mkuki na Nyota wamefanya kazi nzuri sana, sikubaini kosa hata moja.
Wasilisho hili linamega simulizi hii katika sehemu kuu tatu. Kwanza tunapewa vionjo vitamu tukielezwa kuzaliwa kwake, kukua na kwenda shule. Hii ilikuwa matayarisho ya kufikia nia au azma yake ya maisha. Kisha tunaletewa mlo wenyewe (main course) uliosheheni kumbukumbu na ngano za huyo kijana sasa mtu mzima akiwa kazini, mpaka akaukwaa urais wa Tanzania. Mwisho tunaelezwa kwa ufupi maisha yake baada ya kumaliza ngwe yake ya miaka kumi ya urais.
The memoirs by the former President of the United Republic of Tanzania, H.E. Benjamin William Mkapa, titled “My Life, My Purpose: A Tanzanian President Remembers”, were released on Tuesday 12 November 2019 at Julius Nyerere International Convention Centre, in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The release coincided with his 81st birthday.
The memoirs, published by Mkuki na Nyota with support of UONGOZI Institute, contain H.E. Mkapa’s personal account of his unique memories. They range from his childhood, time as president, and his continuing post-retirement involvement at the domestic and international stages.
The launching ceremony was officiated by the President of the United Republic of Tanzania, H.E. Dr. John Pombe Joseph Magufuli. The President of Zanzibar,H.E. Dr. Ali Mohamed Shein;Prime Minister of the United Republic of Tanzania, Hon. Kassim Majaliwa Majaliwa (MP); Speaker of the National Assembly of Tanzania, Hon. Job Yustino Ndugai (MP); and two former Tanzanian Presidents; H.E. Ali Hassan Mwinyi and H.E. Jakaya Mrisho Kikwete; were in attendance. The event also included current and former high-level government officials; heads of regional organisations; business leaders; development partners; academia; representatives from book stores, libraries, civil society, and youth.
Speaking during the event, the Chief Executive Officer of UONGOZI Institute, Prof. Joseph Semboja, highlighted the link between the Institute’s mission and leadership memoirs project.
“Since inception in 2010, our mission as an institute has been to inspire and equip Tanzanian as well as African leaders to deliver inclusive and sustainable solutions,” said Prof. Semboja.
He added, “We believe that sound leadership is the foundation and prerequisite for sustainable development. In fact, this is a continuation of our founding father Mwalimu Julius Kambarage Nyerere’s thoughts on development. He said that to develop, we need people, land, clean politics and good leadership.”
Prof. Semboja went on to state that many leaders from developed countries, particularly the western countries, have written about their personal and leadership lives. He, however, noted that the story changes when it comes to Africa, where only a few books have been written by senior African leaders.
“As a result, leaders and students of development, political science and diplomacy draw lessons from the publications of leaders from developed countries, which consider a non-African context,” he stated.
“We therefore believe that memoirs of senior African leaders contribute to Africa’s political, economic, social and cultural history. The history we are celebrating here today is not H.E. Mkapa’s but Tanzania’s,” said Prof. Semboja, adding that the book is the best birthday gift by H.E. Mkapa to the country.
According to Prof. Semboja, the process of producing H.E. Mkapa’s memoirs was initiated in 2016, and among others, it involved research, meetings with various individuals and institutions, as well as data and information verification. He added that the project costs totalled TZS 230,000,000 (EUR 88,061). According to him, the project would not have been a success without the support of the Government of Finland.
“I would like to thank the Government of Finland for its contribution to the implementation of our programmes. Since inception, our Institute has been receiving both financial and technical support from the Finnish Government. Without their support, today’s event would not have become a reality or if it had, it would have been at high costs,” he stated.
In her remarks, the Ambassador of Finland to Tanzania, Riita Swan, expressed how honoured she was to take part in the launching ceremony of H.E. Mkapa’s memoirs. She went on to highlight the good relations between Tanzania and Finland, which are based on long-term cooperation conducted in a variety of fields ranging from projects at a high political level to grassroots-level.
“For about ten years now, as part of operations between the Governments of Finland and Tanzania, we have been supporting UONGOZI Institute and its work on leadership for sustainable development,” said Amb. Swan.
She further noted that a few months ago at the African Leadership Forum, organised by UONGOZI Institute in Dar es Salaam, H.E. Mkapa spoke on how forests can offer opportunities for socio-economic development in the country. She said that these opportunities are needed to address the growing population, particularly youth and women, and that H.E. Mkapa’s way of addressing the issue shows how a leader has actually assimilated the concept of sustainable development.
To begin, H.E. Mkapa warmly thanked President Magufuli and all present for accepting the invitation to come and take part in the launching ceremony of his memoirs. He further thanked those who counselled and encouraged him to write the book but were unable to attend the event; H.E. Joaquim Chissano, former President of the Republic of Mozambique and H.E. Olusegun Obasanjo, former President of the Federal Republic of Nigeria.
H.E. Mkapa recalled what his father said to him when he had entered secondary school: “I want any one of these futures for you: first as a priest. If this is impossible, I hope that you will become a doctor, but if those two are impossible, then at least become a teacher.”
He said, “As you all know, I instead became the third President of the United Republic of Tanzania, serving two five-year terms. This is something that my father had never dreamt of, and unfortunately, did not live long enough to witness.”
The Former President further recalled that it was not easy for him to accept writing about his life. He said that the book arose due to encouragement from Prof. Semboja.
“I was hesitant at the beginning, not that I did not want to share on my leadership journey and challenges I encountered along the way but rather I never thought that there is anything remarkable to learn from it,” H.E. Mkapa recalled.
Eventually, H.E. Mkapa agreed to write his memoirs and according to him, there were three reasons behind his decision.
First, he wanted to share his experience with those who aspire to serve in the position that he and his predecessors and successors have served in nearly 58 years. His hope was that they would not only learn from the mistakes and achievements but also be inspired to pursue similar leadership roles.
Second, he wanted to pay tribute to those who in one way or another contributed to his personal growth, as well as leadership life.
Third, he wanted to provide his perspective on various issues concerning the liberation of African states and leadership in Africa. Most importantly, he wanted to share his perspective of Mwalimu Nyerere, as a person and as a leader.
H.E. Mkapa stated, “I have written: A future leader could be born with natural leadership traits; yet even divinely bestowed qualities of leadership need nurturing and enhancement to make them relevant to contemporary challenges.”
He further highlighted the importance of mentorship.
“I benefitted from having Mwalimu as a mentor and many of you will have benefited from a mentor at some stage in your life. I urge you all to make a conscious effort to mentor those you see exhibiting the potential to become a leader or those who could reach higher in their leadership goals,” said the former President.
To conclude, H.E. Mkapa revisited the words that conclude his book, a quote from a prominent American rabbi and popular author, Harold Kushner:
“Our souls are not hungry for fame, comfort, wealth, or power. Those rewards create almost as many problems as they solve. Our souls are hungry for meaning, for the sense that we have figured out how to live so that our lives matter, so the world will at least be a little bit different for our having passed through it.”
He stated that these words have been, and still are the purpose in his life; a purpose that God, his family, friends and loyal colleagues have helped him to achieve.
To open his address, President Magufuli congratulated H.E. Mkapa for writing memoirs that will enrich the history of Tanzania and extended special appreciation to him for the invitation. He was gratified with the presence of two other former Tanzanian Presidents. He said their presence demonstrates how peaceful and unified the country is.
President Magufuli told the audience on how H.E. Mkapa contributed to his political career growth.
He said, “During the 1995 elections, when I was running for a seat in the parliament for the first time, through CCM, at the Biharamulo Constituency (now Chato Constituency), Mzee Mkapa, who was running for president at that time came to Biharamulo. I remember that day Mzee Mkapa held my hand and told the crowd in front of us, “Vote for this young gentleman.” Personally, I think his statement was enough to get me elected.”
“When I was Deputy Minister for Works, Transport and Communications, I learned a lot about being confident and bold from Mzee Mkapa,” said President Magufuli.
Speaking about lessons he picked from H.E. Mkapa, President Magufuli said, “Mzee Mkapa was fair to all his appointees. What mattered to him was people who could deliver. Also, when he agrees to take your advice, no matter what, he will stand with you until the end.”
Towards the end of his speech, President Magufuli congratulated UONGOZI Institute for coordinating the publication process of H.E. Mkapa’s memoirs and directed that the book be translated to Swahili.
Lastly, President Magufuli urged other former senior leaders to write memoirs to inform and inspire a new generation of leaders.
Dar es Salaam – 30 October 2019: A three-day leadership retreat for senior leaders from the National Council for Technical Education (NACTE) concluded today.
Organised by UONGOZI Institute in collaboration with NACTE, the retreat aimed at enhancing the senior leaders’ competencies in making strategic choices, leading people and managing other resources, and excelling in personal leadership qualities. It allowed them to reflect on their performance as well as ways to enhance efficiency in their work.
It covered several leadership modules, including Government Structure and Communication, Government Security, Functions of Leadership, Leadership of Public Resources, Ethical Leadership, Personal Leadership, and Emotional Intelligence.
The programme was a continuation of a collaborative initiative between the UONGOZI Institute and NACTE. The first leadership programme was delivered to the Governing Council Members from 26 – 28 June 2019, in Morogoro.
14October, 2019 marked 20 years since the passing of the first Tanzanian President, Julius Kambarage Nyerere. Nyerere, commonly known as Mwalimu, which means teacher, was a great nationalist of the first generation of African leaders who struggled for independence. He was also one of the world’s most charismatic and venerable leaders.
To commemorate his legacy, we collaborated with the University of Dar es Salaam (UDSM) to organise a two-day conference from 10 – 11 October, under the theme “Tanzania: 20 Years after Mwalimu”.
Similar to previous years, the commemorative conference was organised under the auspices of the Mwalimu Nyerere Chair of pan-African Studies at the UDSM.
The event was officiated by the Minister for Foreign Affairs and East African Cooperation, Hon. Palamagamba John Aidan Kabudi, on behalf of the President. In attendance were intellectuals, former and current senior government officials, diplomats, as well as representatives from the private sector, civil society and youth.
During the proceedings, participants explored and assessed the extent to which some of Mwalimu’s core beliefs and values are still relevant and whether they have continued to inform and influence public policy and discourse. Furthermore, they assessed the degree to which his core objectives of eradicating poverty, disease and ignorance whilst building a united, prosperous and peaceful country are being pursued.
The conference received support from CRDB, National Development Corporation, Tanzania Trade Development Authority, Kilimanjaro Airport Development Company Limited, and National Institute for Medical Research.
Every team needs time to reflect; to understand their performance and propose effective approaches for improving it. This is where team retreats come in. Team retreats forge strong bonds that boost morale, improve communication and teamwork in the workplace.
For SADC’s Directorate of Policy, Planning and Resource Mobilisation (PPRM), the need for team retreat was certain given the new organisational structure and new composition of the Directorate staff.
A three-day retreat was then organised by the Directorate to propose sustainable team building and performance culture of the PPRM, reflect on its operations in the new fiscal year, and improve working dynamics and communication among team members, including staff from other directorates and units.
The retreat, held from 2 – 4 October 2019, in Palapye, Botswana, was facilitated by UONGOZI Institute.
Twenty-three staff members from the PPRM and other directorates and units were in attendance. They were taken through presentations and exercises, which aimed at fostering learning, as well as strengthening effective and efficient communication, team building and personal leadership.
In his remarks, the PPRM Director, Dr. Mubita Luwabelwa, said the retreat provided a platform for the team to reflect on what has worked well and what has not and deliberate on the way forward to improve performance of the Directorate as well as the Secretariat.
During the retreat, participants interacted, engaged in open discussions, and developed team ground rules and action plans to enhance team spirit and efficiency for improved service delivery.
This is the second retreat organised under SADC-UONGOZI Institute partnership. The first was organised a few days prior to the 39th SADC Summit, 5 – 8 August 2019, in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
Our role in these retreats enhances our philosophy of achieving sustainable development through competent leadership. We seek to inspire and promote the recognition of the important role of leadership in sustainable development. We do this by offering specialised courses relating to leadership and executive management, organising high-level policy forums and dialogues that provide opportunities for leaders to share ideas on strategic leadership for sustainable development and stimulate strategic thinking to formulate African solutions for Africa. Also, by supporting research on leadership and sustainable development in the continent.
20 September 2019 marked yet another milestone for Tanzania’s strategic projects as the Prime Minister of the United Republic of Tanzania, Hon. Kassim Majaliwa Majaliwa (MP), launched the National Multi-Sector Local Content Guidelines and a Website for Strategic Projects.
This took place during a national forum on “Local Content Implementation in Strategic Projects: Achievements, Opportunities and Challenges”, jointly organised by the National Economic Empowerment Council (NEEC) and UONGOZI Institute in Dodoma, Tanzania. Representatives from the public sector, private sector, academia and civil society were in attendance.
During the proceedings, progress on the implementation of existing strategic projects was shared, and participants made recommendations to ensure that Tanzanians participate effectively to benefit from the projects.
In her remarks, the NEEC’s Executive Secretary, Mrs. Beng’i Issa, extended her appreciation to the Prime Minister for accepting the invitation to come and officiate the forum, as well as to UONGOZI Institute and other partners for continuing to work together with the Council to enhance domestic participation in strategic projects within Tanzania.
Underscoring the objectives of the forum, Mrs. Issa said, “This forum seeks to facilitate communication between the Government, private sector and other stakeholders on local content implementation issues.”
She added that the aim is to create awareness on where the country is in terms of implementation, as well as to exchange experiences and information on employment and procurement opportunities.
On behalf of the CEO of UONGOZI Institute, Ms. Caroline Israel, Ag. Head of Research and Policy said as part of its work to support Tanzanian leaders to attain sustainable development, the Institute supports programmes and activities aimed at optimising domestic participation.
“UONGOZI Institute believes that local content is important, and increasing local participation requires enhancing the skills of the national workforce as well as the capacity and competitiveness of local firms,” said Ms. Israel.
She further stated, “We are proud that through our collaboration with NEEC and other partners, we continue to contribute to enhancing competencies in the area through forums as well as technical and capacity-building workshops.”
In his address, Prime Minister Majaliwa stated that Tanzania’s fifth-phase Government has set a target of ensuring that Tanzania becomes a middle-income country by 2025, through industrial development.
To realise this goal, he said that the Government continues to undertake several measures to allow people’s full participation in economic activities. He mentioned a few examples of these measures, including reforms in policies and acts for the mining sector, insurance, and public procurement.
He said, “The aim is to ensure that Tanzanians receive priority in employment, services, skills development, and technology through the strategic projects that are being implemented within the country.”
In closing, the Prime Minister stressed that the Government will continue to implement measures to create a better business environment within the country and strengthen Public-Private Partnerships to improve the citizens’ welfare and accelerate economic growth.
UONGOZI Institute invites applications for a partially-funded one-year Executive Programme, Postgraduate Diploma in Leadership from Tanzanian Senior Leaders in the Public, Private and Civil Society Organisations. The Programme, undertaken in collaboration with Aalto University Executive Education of Finland (Aalto EE), includes 10 modules that are run over the course of one year. It aims to develop leadership competencies in three areas; Making Strategic Choices, Leading People and Other Resources and Excelling in Personal Leadership Qualities.
Facilitated by world-class professors and experts in leadership from around the world, the Programme is designed to encourage participants to challenge their thinking as they broaden their competencies in visioning, planning and inspiring others through advanced strategic communication. It aims to motivate participants to become better designers and innovators of effective structures and systems for better results.
The Programme is designed for leaders who want to propel their professional development without putting their careers on hold. Each module runs for one month, consisting of 2-3 days in-class workshops and online individual or group assignments.
Completion of the Programme requires attending all modules and completing several written pre- and post-assignments and four graded exams. On successful completion, candidates will earn 18 European credits; all of which are transferrable to the Aalto EE Executive MBA Programme or Aalto EE MBA Programme.
The tuition fee for the Programme is EUR 8,000. This scholarship covers:
50% of the tuition fee (EUR 4,000)
Learning and training materials, including stationery
Meals and refreshments during training hours
The participants or their sponsors will be responsible for:
50% of the tuition fee (EUR 4,000)
Daily Subsistence Allowance (Per Diem)
Transport and on-transit expenses
Incidentals and medical coverage
The registration process is complete ONLY when all balances have been remitted.
Candidate’s Curriculum Vitae (not exceeding 2 pages)
Cover letter (not exceeding one page)
An essay (between 450 – 500 words) explaining the candidate’s leadership successes, challenges and motivation for applying for the Programme
Reference letter indicating sponsorship commitment signed by the candidate and his/her sponsor
Certified copies of original academic certificates. UONGOZI Institute reserves the rights to verify certificates with issuing institution.
Commitment letter from the employer to confirm the applicant’s full participation in the Programme.
Selection Criteria and Qualifications
Candidates need to meet with the following entry requirements:
Minimum five years of work experience in a managerial or senior specialist position
Advanced command of written and spoken English
Excellent computer skills
Proficiency in writing academic papers
Tentative Programme Schedule
April 2020: Opening, Reflective and inspirational leader
May 2020: Strategy Formulation and Implementation
August 2020: Developing Financial Skills
September 2020: Leading for results
October 2020: Design Thinking for Organisational Development
November 2020: Sustainable Development
January 2021: Ethical Leadership
February 2021: Strategic Communication
March 2021: Human Resource Management for Executives
April 2021: Leading Change, Graduation
Dar es Salaam and Arusha (Specific location will be determined for each module).
How to Apply
Submit your applications or the names of selected candidates to
All applications must be received by Friday, 10thJanuary, 2020 at 17:00 hours (EAT).Applications received after this deadline will not be considered. For more information about this Programme, please visit www.uongozi.or.tz/postgraduate-diploma. Only successful candidates will be contacted.
As we aim to reach a wider audience and enhance our philosophy of achieving sustainable development through competent leadership, we continue to foster new partnerships and strengthen the existing ones.
The objective of the retreat for the Office of the SADC’s Executive Secretary was to reflect on the functions of the Office, as well, as to discuss and recommend approaches for increasing efficiency.
The retreat facilitated open feedback among participants, allowing them to reflect on achievements and challenges whilst addressing difficult questions and recommending a way forward.
Delivering welcoming remarks, the CEO of UONGOZI Institute, Prof. Joseph Semboja expressed warm gratitude to the SADC Secretariat for all the cooperation and support it extended through its partnership with the Institute.
He urged participants to actively participate in the retreat sessions whilst stressing that only they could determine the lessons to take. He further encouraged them to use the opportunity of being in Tanzania to visit various tourist attractions that the country has.
In her remarks, the Executive Secretary of SADC, H.E. Dr. Stergomena Lawrence Tax thanked UONGOZI Institute for accepting the request to facilitate the retreat.
“We appreciate UONGOZI Institute’s role in this and it shows how the Institute is committed to enhancing leadership in our region,” expressed H.E. Tax.
She encouraged participants to be honest and identify solutions to address the existing challenges at the Secretariat. She emphasised on ownership and practicability of the proposed solutions.
She said, “We need ownership, particularly in planning. When you start there, it spreads to other areas. So, try as much as possible to come up with recommendations that are practical to allow us to move to the top.”
We are pleased to announce Panashe G.R. Gombiro from Zimbabwe as the winner of this year’s African Youth Leadership Essay Competition.
The Competition, organised annually by UONGOZI Institute, aims to provide a space for the youth of Africa and the next generation of leaders in the region to contribute to important discussions on leadership and sustainable development.Since 2013, seven Competitions have been organised.
This year, African citizens between 18 – 25 years were asked to respond to the following question:
“If you were an African leader, how would you promote sustainable use of the renewable natural resources for fostering socio-economic transformation in Africa?”
Over 2,000 essays from 21 African countries were received and rigorously evaluated using the following criteria:
In recognition of their achievement, the overall winner and three runners-up were invited to attend the plenary session of the Africa Leadership Forum, convened by H.E. Benjamin William Mkapa, former President of the United Republic of Tanzania in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, from 29th – 30th August, 2019. They also attended the African Leadership Forum Gala Dinner on the 29th, where they were announced at an award ceremony, officiated by H.E. Thabo Mbeki, former President of the Republic of South Africa.
The overall winner received a certificate and cash prize of $2,000. Cash prizes and certificates were also awarded to each runner-up.
UONGOZI Institute would like to thank each one of the 2,000+ young African citizens who participated in this year’s competition.
The sixth African Leadership Forum (ALF) took place in Dar-es-salaam, Tanzania, on 29th and 30th August, 2019, under the theme “Promoting Good Natural Resource Management for Socio-economic Transformation in Africa”.
The objective of the Forum was to reflect on the potential for land, wildlife, fishery and forestry in fostering socio-economic transformation in Africa and address the noted widespread unsustainable use of natural resources across the continent as well as the anticipated socio-economic, environmental and climate change consequences.
The keynote address, expanding on the theme, was delivered by H.E. Benjamin William Mkapa, former President of the United Republic of Tanzania and Patron of the Forum. The organisation was managed by UONGOZI Institute.
Similar to previous events, ALF 2019 was organised over a day and a half period with an open plenary and closed sessions under the same theme. The closed sessions were held under Chatham House Rules to encourage frank, open and in-depth discussion.
The plenary session of the Forum was graced by the attendance of H.E. Dr. John Pombe Joseph Magufuli, President of the United Republic of Tanzania, who later on delivered an address. H.E. Samia Suluhu Hassan, Vice President of The United Republic of Tanzania; H.E Olusegun Obasanjo, former President of the Federal Republic of Nigeria; H.E. Thabo Mbeki, former President of the Republic of South Africa; H.E. Jakaya Kikwete, former President of the United Republic of Tanzania; H.E. Hassan Sheikh Mohamud, former President of the Federal Republic of Somalia; and H.E. Hery Rajaonarimampianina, former President of the Democratic Republic of Madagascar; were in attendance. Also in attendance were diplomats, heads of international organisations and regional communities, and leaders from the public sector, private sector, academia and civil society from across Africa.
Under the overarching theme, the Forum considered three sub-themes, namely Basic Principles for Managing Renewable Resources, Illicit Practices of Renewable Resources in Africa, and Africa’s Perspective on Climate Change and its Impact on Natural Resources.
In his address, former President Mkapa underscored the significance of the Forum’s theme.
He said, “This year’s African Leadership Forum touches the growth prospects of many African countries, if not all of them, and the lives of all their citizens.”
He further explained the rationale behind the three sub-themes, namely Conservation, Land Management, and Climate Change.
“This is no accident, because the three interface and impact one another,” said H.E. Mkapa.
Former President Mkapa stressed that absence of a conservation policy and accompanying programmes can have a disastrous impact on the nation’s ecosystems and weather prospects. He said both can accrue from the nation’s land use policy, thus affect the sustainability of its land management system. According to him, to achieve vibrant economic growth, it is necessary to have sustainable land management in place.
“Sustainable land management involves a holistic approach to achieving productive and healthy ecosystems by integrating social, economic, physical and biological needs and values contributing to sustainable and rural development,” he elucidated.
Touching on environmental conservation, H.E. Mkapa said that the destruction and diminution of the ecological and social environment can be attributed to two causes: human activities and the interface of nature.
“The population of Sub-Sahara Africa is set to cross the 1 billion mark this year. I dare to suggest that much of the present and planned growth is not taking enough consideration of the region’s human and natural resources base,” he stated.
Former President Mkapa further underscored the increasing demands placed on land and other natural resources that affect nature and wildlife reserves. He argued that in this way, “Development is made to put people and nature/wildlife reserves in competition.”
On climate change, H.E. Mkapa said, “Climate change manifests itself and is felt in different ways. It is occasioned by global warming and excessive depletion of renewable natural resources – land fertility, deforestation, inland waters recession.”
He provided an example of Tanzania, whose 70% of the population, peasant farmers and livestock keepers, relies on climate change and global warming. He said as the economy and population grow, renewable natural resources are declining, about 8,770 square kilometres of forest disappear every year. He cautioned that if the trend will continue, by 2075 there will be no forests in Tanzania.
Former President Mkapa went on to state, “Reforestation is possible.” He gave an example of Wangari Maathai’s Green Belt Movement in Kenya, which planted over 50 million trees around Nairobi in about 10 years. Also, Ethiopia, which since May, has planted 2.6 billion trees as part of a campaign to fight desertification.
To promote good natural resource management, H.E. Mkapa emphasised on “communication”, “education” and “land use policy”. He said that governments and communities must always collaborate in development and implementation of programmes for sustainable management of natural resources. Communities must be sensitised and empowered to protect their natural resources. Furthermore, African countries should put in place, by policy and practice, land use policies. These should spell out with a minimum of equivocation rights of occupancy and an adjudication system of resolution of land disputes.
Addressing the meeting, H.E. Dr. John Pombe Joseph Magufuli stressed on “African solutions to African problems”.
He said, “African challenges can only be solved by Africans as we understand our challenges better than anyone else.”
President Magufuli considered that the foundation of any nation’s development lies in its resources and people. He however noted that even though the continent is endowed with resources such as minerals, gas, fertile lands, sustainable management of these resources remains a challenge.
He further mentioned six factors that prevent Africa to realise the benefits of its resources, namely colonial mindset, failure to manage resources, lack of innovation and industrial backwardness, conflicts, unconscionable contracts, and environmental pollution.
How then does Africa reach a turning point? Responding to this question, President Magufuli said that Africans must focus on what is available in the local and immediate context, and transform it into money.
He further stated that money comes at the end, and is not the foundation of development. He quoted Mwalimu Julius Kambarage Nyerere, Tanzania’s founding father, “Even Mwalimu Nyerere said in order for us to develop, we need people, land, clean politics and good leadership. He did not say anything about money… he knew that would follow.”
In closing, President Magufuli mentioned measures that the Government of Tanzania has been implementing to ensure good management of natural resources for socio-economic transformation. These included enacting a law for the protection of permanent sovereignty over natural wealth and resources, reviewing mineral contracts, incorporating technology in the industrialisation agenda, implementing various hydropower projects to reduce and prevent deforestation, expanding nature reserves, and combating and preventing corruption in the public sector and beyond.