Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) Series: Goal 17

Goal Seventeen: Strengthen the means of implementation and revitalize the global partnership for sustainable development

sdg 17

Goal 17, the last of the sustainable development goals, focuses on the key areas to be addressed in order to ensure that the SDGs are implemented, highlighting the essential role of partnerships in this process.

In recognition of the need for adequate resources to implement the goals, the first five targets relate to resource mobilization for the SDGs through development aid and other sources, as well as developing policies to foster debt financing, debt relief and debt restructuring; and promoting investment.

According to this report, Sub-Saharan African countries have generated an average of 20% of their GDP through public revenue generation and are projected to only make slight gains on government revenue generation by 2030. Greater efforts are needed in this area in order to achieve target 17.1.

The goal also includes targets on the promotion of science and innovation;  supporting capacity building in science and technology, monitoring and evaluation and for the implementation of the SDGs in general; promoting trade, and increasing exports for developing countries, with a more specific target to double developing countries’ share of exports in the global market by 2020.

Finally, targets on policy and institutional coherence and multi-stakeholder partnerships highlight the importance of sound, coherent policies and macroeconomic stability in the successful implementation of the SDGs, as well as the role partnerships for the achievement of the goals.

Proposed targets:

17.1 Strengthen domestic resource mobilization, including through international support to developing countries, to improve domestic capacity for tax and other revenue collection

17.2 Developed countries to implement fully their official development assistance commitments, including the commitment by many developed countries to achieve the target of 0.7 per cent of ODA/GNI to developing countries and 0.15 to 0.20 per cent of ODA/GNI to least developed countries; ODA providers are encouraged to consider setting a target to provide at least 0.20 per cent of ODA/GNI to least developed countries

17.3 Mobilize additional financial resources for developing countries from multiple sources

17.4 Assist developing countries in attaining long-term debt sustainability through coordinated policies aimed at fostering debt financing, debt relief and debt restructuring, as appropriate, and address the external debt of highly indebted poor countries to reduce debt distress

17.5 Adopt and implement investment promotion regimes for least developed countries

Technology

17.6 Enhance North-South, South-South and triangular regional and international cooperation on and access to science, technology and innovation and enhance knowledge sharing on mutually agreed terms, including through improved coordination among existing mechanisms, in particular at the United Nations level, and through a global technology facilitation mechanism

17.7 Promote the development, transfer, dissemination and diffusion of environmentally sound technologies to developing countries on favourable terms, including on concessional and preferential terms, as mutually agreed

17.8 Fully operationalize the technology bank and science, technology and innovation capacity-building mechanism for least developed countries by 2017 and enhance the use of enabling technology, in particular information and communications technology

Capacity-building

17.9 Enhance international support for implementing effective and targeted capacity-building in developing countries to support national plans to implement all the sustainable development goals, including through North-South, South-South and triangular cooperation

Trade

17.10 Promote a universal, rules-based, open, non-discriminatory and equitable multilateral trading system under the World Trade Organization, including through the conclusion of negotiations under its Doha Development Agenda

17.11 Significantly increase the exports of developing countries, in particular with a view to doubling the least developed countries’ share of global exports by 2020

17.12 Realize timely implementation of duty-free and quota-free market access on a lasting basis for all least developed countries, consistent with World Trade Organization decisions, including by ensuring that preferential rules of origin applicable to imports from least developed countries are transparent and simple, and contribute to facilitating market access

Systemic issues

Policy and institutional coherence

17.13 Enhance global macroeconomic stability, including through policy coordination and policy coherence

17.14 Enhance policy coherence for sustainable development

17.15 Respect each country’s policy space and leadership to establish and implement policies for poverty eradication and sustainable development

Multi-stakeholder partnerships

17.16 Enhance the global partnership for sustainable development, complemented by multi-stakeholder partnerships that mobilize and share knowledge, expertise, technology and financial resources, to support the achievement of the sustainable development goals in all countries, in particular developing countries

17.17 Encourage and promote effective public, public-private and civil society partnerships, building on the experiences and resourcing strategies of partnerships

Data, monitoring and accountability

17.18 By 2020, enhance capacity-building support to developing countries, including for least developed countries and small island developing States, to increase significantly the availability of high-quality, timely and reliable data disaggregated by income, gender, age, race, ethnicity, migratory status, disability, geographic location and other characteristics relevant in national contexts

17.19 By 2030, build on existing initiatives to develop measurements of progress on sustainable development that complement gross domestic product, and support statistical capacity-building in developing countries

This brings us to the end of the Sustainable Development Goals series on UONGOZI Institute’s blog. The complete series of articles can be found here. For more information on UONGOZI Institute and it’s work on sustainable development, please visit our website or email info@uongozi.or.tz.

Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) Series: Goal 16

Goal Sixteen: Promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development, provide access to justice for all and build effective, accountable and inclusive institutions at all levels

SDG16-e1442928930621This goal, with a focus on governance, was not included in the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), the preceding form of the SDGs. It is of particular importance for Africa due to its focus on institutions and policies that would serve as the basis for achieving many of the other goals.

The targets under this goal emphasize the importance of peace, non-violence, rule of law and inclusiveness in society for development. It also includes targets on, more specifically, the reduction of illicit financial and arms flows, corruption and bribery in all forms; as well as the development of accountable and transparent institutions at all levels and ensuring public access to information.

According to the 2015 Mo Ibrahim index, as a collective, Africa’s progress on governance has stalled since 2011. Although the figures vary from country to country, the index shows that there has been progress under Human Development and Participation & Human Rights, however Safety & Rule of Law and Sustainable Economic Opportunity have shown a decline. Specific areas of decline included public management, rights, accountability, the rural sector, national security and the business environment.

More information on the 2015 Ibrahim Index of African Governance can be found here.

 

Proposed targets:

            16.1 Significantly reduce all forms of violence and related deaths everywhere

16.2 End abuse, exploitation, trafficking and all forms of violence against and torture of children

16.3 Promote the rule of law at the national and international levels and ensure equal access to justice for all

16.4 By 2030, significantly reduce illicit financial and arms flows, strengthen the recovery and return of stolen assets and combat all forms of organized crimes

16.5 Substantially reduce corruption and bribery in all their forms

16.6 Develop effective, accountable and transparent institutions at all levels

16.7 Ensure responsive, inclusive, participatory and representative decision-making at all levels

16.8 Broaden and strengthen the participation of developing countries in the institutions of global governance

16.9 By 2030, provide legal identity for all, including birth registration

16.10 Ensure public access to information and protect fundamental freedoms, in accordance with national legislation and international agreements

16.a Strengthen relevant national institutions, including through international cooperation, for building capacity at all levels, in particular in developing countries, to prevent violence and combat terrorism and crime

16.b Promote and enforce non-discriminatory laws and policies for sustainable development

More on governance in Africa:

The Centre for Conflict Resolution

The Institute for Security Studies

The Africa Governance Initiative

The African Leadership Forum Report 2015

The African Leadership Forum Report 2014

Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) Series: Goal 15

Goal-15 pic

Protect, restore and promote sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems, sustainably manage forests, combat desertification, and halt and reverse land degradation and halt Biodiversity loss

 

The sustainable management of forests has faced various challenges in developing countries. Targets under this goal include the sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems and the sustainable management of forests, important issues for Africa where more than 70 percent of the population in Sub-Saharan Africa, for example, depends on forests and woodlands for its livelihood, and where one in five rural families’ daily needs come from forests. Forest-related activities account for a large part of the GDP of most of the continent’s countries. Despite significant international financial support to the forestry sector in the Sub-Saharan African countries however, impacts on sustainable management and poverty alleviation are still below expectations.

Goal 15 also includes targets on combating desertification and reversing land degradation.  It is a well-known fact that soil degradation not only results in decreased food production but also in droughts, ecological imbalance and consequent degradation of the quality of life. In Africa, the most conspicuous symptoms of the negative impact of land degradation on food production are stagnating and declining yields and increasing levels of poverty. Other targets under this goal include the conservation of mountain ecosystems, reducing the degradation of natural habitats and halting the loss of biodiversity, ensuring equitable sharing of benefits from the utilization of genetic resources, and urgent action against poaching and trafficking of flora and fauna among others, and taking steps to ensure that these issues are integrated into local, national and global agendas and that sufficient resources are mobilized.

 

Proposed Targets:

15.1 By 2020, ensure the conservation, restoration and sustainable use of terrestrial and inland freshwater ecosystems and their services, in particular forests, wetlands, mountains and drylands, in line with obligations under international agreements

15.2 By 2020, promote the implementation of sustainable management of all types of forests, halt deforestation, restore degraded forests and substantially increase afforestation and reforestation globally

15.3 By 2020, combat desertification, restore degraded land and soil, including land affected by desertification, drought and floods, and strive to achieve a land-degradation-neutral world

15.4 By 2030, ensure the conservation of mountain ecosystems, including their biodiversity, in order to enhance their capacity to provide benefits that are essential for sustainable development

15.5 Take urgent and significant action to reduce the degradation of natural habitats, halt the loss of biodiversity and, by 2020, protect and prevent the extinction of threatened species

15.6 Ensure fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising from the utilization of genetic resources and promote appropriate access to such resources

15.7 Take urgent action to end poaching and trafficking of protected species of flora and fauna and address both demand and supply of illegal wildlife products

15.8 By 2020, introduce measures to prevent the introduction and significantly reduce the impact of invasive alien species on land and water ecosystems and control or eradicate the priority species

15.9 By 2020, integrate ecosystem and biodiversity values into national and local planning, development processes, poverty reduction strategies and accounts

15.a Mobilize and significantly increase financial resources from all sources to conserve and sustainably use biodiversity and ecosystems

15.b Mobilize significant resources from all sources and at all levels to finance sustainable forest management and provide adequate incentives to developing countries to advance such management, including for conservation

15.c Enhance global support for efforts to combat poaching and trafficking of protected species, including by increasing the capacity of local communities to pursue sustainable livelihood opportunities

 

Conferences and Forums have been organized by UONGOZI Institute to promote dialogue among various stakeholders in the forestry sector, the government, and the general public.

For more references on the success and challenges facing Goal 15 especially in the Africa context. Click the following links:

1. http://www.uongozi.or.tz/files/publications/GGP%20Publication_1.pdf to read a publication about  Towards a Green Economy:: Exploring the potential of forestry in Tanzania through the Green Growth Program.

2. http://www.uongozi.or.tz/files/publications/brief%202%20final.pdf to read a publication about Thinking Outside the Box: A case for promoting the charcoal industry in Tanzania.

 

Let us meet again next week when we feature Goal 16. Please give us feedback on our SDG Series by emailing info@uongozi.or.tz or social media  and @Uongozi on Twitter. Have a good weekend.

Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) Series: Goal 14

Goal-14

 

Goal Fourteen: Conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources for sustainable development

 

This goal focuses on various aspects of coastal and marine health, including sustainable fishing, pollution, and tourism. This is another goal which expands the depth of the SDGs beyond that of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), which focused very broadly on environmental sustainability without getting into specifics in this way.

According to the Ocean Health Index, Africa scored a 63 out of 100 in 2014 for the overall health of its coastlines and waters. The index assesses the health of oceans of 221 regions based on 10 goals; biodiversity, clean waters, sense of place, tourism/recreation, livelihoods economies, coastal protection, carbon storage, natural products, artisanal fishing and food provision.

In Africa, the sustainable management of marine resources is a significant factor for sustainable development. According to this World Bank report, rural fishing communities throughout the continent that are dependent on the services provided by coastal and marine ecosystems are often poor, vulnerable and likely to suffer most from environmental change. The target here, as outlined in target 14.4, is to effectively regulate harvesting and end overfishing, illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing and destructive fishing practices by 2020, as well as to implement science-based management plans in order to restore fish stocks in the shortest time feasible.

 

Proposed Targets:

14.1 By 2025, prevent and significantly reduce marine pollution of all kinds, in particular from land-based activities, including marine debris and nutrient pollution

14.2 By 2020, sustainably manage and protect marine and coastal ecosystems to avoid significant adverse impacts, including by strengthening their resilience, and take action for their restoration in order to achieve healthy and productive oceans

14.3 Minimize and address the impacts of ocean acidification, including through enhanced scientific cooperation at all levels

14.4 By 2020, effectively regulate harvesting and end overfishing, illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing and destructive fishing practices and implement science-based management plans, in order to restore fish stocks in the shortest time feasible, at least to levels that can produce maximum sustainable yield as determined by their biological characteristics

14.5 By 2020, conserve at least 10 per cent of coastal and marine areas, consistent with national and international law and based on the best available scientific information

14.6 By 2020, prohibit certain forms of fisheries subsidies which contribute to overcapacity and overfishing, eliminate subsidies that contribute to illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing and refrain from introducing new such subsidies, recognizing that appropriate and effective special and differential treatment for developing and least developed countries should be an integral part of the World Trade Organization fisheries subsidies negotiation (1)

14.7 By 2030, increase the economic benefits to small island developing States and least developed countries from the sustainable use of marine resources, including through sustainable management of fisheries, aquaculture and tourism

14.a Increase scientific knowledge, develop research capacity and transfer marine technology, taking into account the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission Criteria and Guidelines on the Transfer of Marine Technology, in order to improve ocean health and to enhance the contribution of marine biodiversity to the development of developing countries, in particular small island developing States and least developed countries

14.b Provide access for small-scale artisanal fishers to marine resources and markets

14.c Ensure the full implementation of international law, as reflected in the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea for States parties thereto, including, where applicable, existing regional and international regimes for the conservation and sustainable use of oceans and their resources by their parties

 

  1. Taking into account ongoing World Trade Organization negotiations, the Doha Development Agenda  and the Hong Kong ministerial mandate.

Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) Series: Goal 13

Goal-13x

 

Goal Thirteen: Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts*

* Acknowledging that the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change is the primary international, intergovernmental forum for negotiating the global response to climate change

 

The inclusion of SDG Thirteen on climate change was anticipated, however it is limited in its scope to avoid overlap with the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, which has served as the primary body working on climate change since 1992. Like Goal Twelve, this goal includes a target emphasizing the need for increased education and awareness-raising on the subject matter. Higher education and research in Africa are key to solving problems caused by climate change. Biotechnology is one solution proposed by African scientists. With careful use it can provide crops that give higher yields in dry and barren land and be a major contributor to food security. However, although there are an increasing number of examples of biotech crops in Africa, compared to Latin America and Asia the use of biotechnology is extremely low and South Africa is the only country in Africa to commercialize biotech crops so far.

 

Another important aspect of this goal is its inclusion of a target on the capacity to respond to natural disasters, which have plagued Africa. Capacity means that they are guided by the users, allowing them to participate more fully in decision-making processes and to articulate the specific needs and demands of a diverse society. It also means persistent adaptation towards increased efficiency, transparency and accountability. Committees and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) may be enlisted to monitor and evaluate climate services, especially in rural areas. Institutional decentralization and special measures must be put in place to ensure participation of women, youth, ethnic minorities, and vulnerable groups

 

Proposed Targets:

13.1 Strengthen resilience and adaptive capacity to climate-related hazards and natural disasters in all countries

13.2 Integrate climate change measures into national policies, strategies and planning

13.3 Improve education, awareness-raising and human and institutional capacity on climate change mitigation, adaptation, impact reduction and early warning

13.a Implement the commitment undertaken by developed-country parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change to a goal of mobilizing jointly $100 billion annually by 2020 from all sources to address the needs of developing countries in the context of meaningful mitigation actions and transparency on implementation and fully operationalize the Green Climate Fund through its capitalization as soon as possible

13.b Promote mechanisms for raising capacity for effective climate change-related planning and management in least developed countries, including focusing on women, youth and local marginalized communities

Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) Series: Goal 12

Goal-12

 

Goal Twelve: Ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns

 

SDG Twelve calls upon everyone from individuals to large international corporations to make more responsible decisions about their consumption and production to align both with a pattern of sustainability. Target 12.3 is of particular interest as it focuses on the reduction of food waste and loss, which currently sits at about 1.3 billion tons of food per year. Food waste tends to be higher in developed countries, however post-harvest food loss persists as an issue in developing countries, such as those in Sub-Saharan Africa. Therefore, to decrease loss policies will need to focus on the post-harvest value chain of agricultural products to determine where improvements can be made.

 

A second target of interest is target 12.8, which calls for the dissemination of information on sustainable development so that all individuals can be informed on how their lifestyles can be in harmony with the environment. This is really the key to the entire agenda of the SDGs, since the more people who understand this, the more people will be willing to not only comply, but help with their implementation. This is something already in progress in Africa, many countries in the region have made progress in establishing initiatives and programmes, as well as formulating and adopting policies, strategies and legislation to foster sustainable development. These include laws and policies in the broad area of environmental management as well as in sectoral areas such as mining, energy, agriculture and health. Many African countries have also ratified major chemicals and wastes related conventions as well as other MEAs (Multilateral Environment Agreements). In the mining sector, African countries have increasingly signed up to global voluntary initiatives.  Beyond adding the concept of sustainable development in mining, health ,agriculture etc, The African 10-Year Framework of Programmes on Sustainable Consumption and Production (10-YFP) has been launched. The 10-YFP has a strategic focus on linking SCP with the challenges of meeting basic needs in a more sustainable manner.

 

Proposed Targets:

12.1 Implement the 10-year framework of programmes on sustainable consumption and production, all countries taking action, with developed countries taking the lead, taking into account the development and capabilities of developing countries

12.2 By 2030, achieve sustainable management and efficient use of natural resources

12.3 By 2030, halve per capita global food waste at the retail and consumer levels and reduce food losses along production and supply chains, including post-harvest losses

12.4 By 2020, achieve the environmentally sound management of chemicals and all wastes throughout their life cycle, in accordance with agreed international frameworks, and significantly reduce their release to the air, water and soil in order to minimize their adverse impacts on human health and the environment

12.5 By 2030, substantially reduce waste generation through prevention, reduction, recycling and reuse

12.6 Encourage companies, especially large and transnational companies, to adopt sustainable practices and to integrate sustainability information into their reporting cycle

12.7 Promote public procurement practices that are sustainable, in accordance with national policies and priorities

12.8 By 2030, ensure that people everywhere have the relevant information and awareness for sustainable development and lifestyles in harmony with nature

12.a Support developing countries to strengthen their scientific and technological capacity to move towards more sustainable patterns of consumption and production

12.b Develop and implement tools to monitor sustainable development impacts for sustainable tourism that creates jobs and promotes local culture and products

12.c Rationalize inefficient fossil-fuel subsidies that encourage wasteful consumption by removing market distortions, in accordance with national circumstances, including by restructuring taxation and phasing out those harmful subsidies, where they exist, to reflect their environmental impacts, taking fully into account the specific needs and conditions of developing countries and minimizing the possible adverse impacts on their development in a manner that protects the poor and the affected communities

Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) Series: Goal 11

Goal 11

 

Goal Eleven: Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable

 

SDG Eleven accounts for the increasing size of the global urban population with an emphasis on sustainability in cities, but maintains breadth by also recognizing the importance of human settlements in general. According to the World Bank, 37% of people in Sub-Saharan Africa live in urban areas and this number is only growing.

 

One of the more interesting targets included in this goal is 11.7, calling for universal access to green public spaces for the population. This is a less conventional concept to include than say, target 11.1 calling for access to housing for all, which makes its potential implementation interesting for a continent such as Africa. There are numerous national parks in the continent, but these don’t seem to fit the description of the target, which implies something more along the lines of Central Park in New York City, which are far less common. The question with such a target is how important is it for Africa to implement when compared to other aspects of this goal, as well as the rest of the SDGs.

 

Proposed Targets:

11.1 By 2030, ensure access for all to adequate, safe and affordable housing and basic services and upgrade slums

11.2 By 2030, provide access to safe, affordable, accessible and sustainable transport systems for all, improving road safety, notably by expanding public transport, with special attention to the needs of those in vulnerable situations, women, children, persons with disabilities and older persons

11.3 By 2030, enhance inclusive and sustainable urbanzation and capacity for participatory, integrated and sustainable human settlement planning and management in all countries

11.4 Strengthen efforts to protect and safeguard the world’s cultural and natural heritage

11.5 By 2030, significantly reduce the number of deaths and the number of people affected and substantially decrease the economic losses relative to gross domestic product caused by disasters, including water-related disasters, with a focus on protecting the poor and people in vulnerable situations

11.6 By 2030, reduce the adverse per capita environmental impact of cities, including by paying special attention to air quality and municipal and other waste management

11.7 By 2030, provide universal access to safe, inclusive and accessible, green and public spaces, in particular for women and children, older persons and persons with disabilities

11.a Support positive economic, social and environmental links between urban, peri-urban and rural areas by strengthening national and regional development planning

11.b By 2020, substantially increase the number of cities and human settlements adopting and implementing integrated policies and plans towards inclusion, resource efficiency, mitigation and adaptation to climate change, resilience to disasters, develop and implement, in line with the forthcoming Hyogo Framework, holistic disaster risk management at all levels

11.c Support least developed countries, including through financial and technical assistance, in building sustainable and resilient buildings utilizing local materials

Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) Series: Goal 10

Goal-10 PicGoal Ten: Reduce inequality within and among countries

This goal represents a key difference between the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), as it is targeted at equality for populations within countries, as well as between different countries globally rather than just looking at aggregate measurements of progress towards each of the goals. For example, Goal Eight has targets emphasizing overall economic growth, whereas this goal mentions specifically improving income growth for the bottom 40 percent of the population. This type of data is not readily available just yet, but a World Bank report on shared prosperity did indicate that Tanzania is currently achieving target 10.1 with income growth of the bottom 40 percent higher than the national average. The annualized growth rate in average income per capita using data from 2002 to 2012 for the total population was 9.11%, while it was 9.76% for the bottom 40 percent. The data indicates that this is not the case for the rest of Africa, where the growth rate for the total population was 3.7% in 2015 and it was only 3.23% for the bottom 40 percent of the population.

Most of the other targets for this goal focus on implementing policies that are nondiscriminatory and encourage equality in both outcomes and opportunities. They are mostly qualitative in nature, making it difficult to show data to indicate the current state of affairs in Africa. Some of the targets, such as 10.2 and 10.6, relate very closely to targets under SDG Sixteen, which will be discussed in greater detail in a later post, and indicate the interconnected nature of the SDGs. This also indicates that many of the issues are multifaceted and cannot be siloed.

Proposed Targets:

10.1 By 2030, progressively achieve and sustain income growth of the bottom 40 per cent of the population at a rate higher than the national average

10.2 By 2030, empower and promote the social, economic and political inclusion of all, irrespective of age, sex, disability, race, ethnicity, origin, religion or economic or other status

10.3 Ensure equal opportunity and reduce inequalities of outcome, including by eliminating discriminatory laws, policies and practices and promoting appropriate legislation, policies and action in this regard

10.4 Adopt policies, especially fiscal, wage and social protection policies, and progressively achieve greater equality

10.5 Improve the regulation and monitoring of global financial markets and institutions and strengthen the implementation of such regulations

10.6 Ensure enhanced representation and voice for developing countries in decisionmaking in global international economic and financial institutions in order to deliver more effective, credible, accountable and legitimate institutions

10.7 Facilitate orderly, safe, regular and responsible migration and mobility of people, including through the implementation of planned and well-managed migration policies

10.a Implement the principle of special and different treatment for developing countries, in particular least developed countries, in accordance with World Trade Organization agreements

10.b Encourage official development assistance and financial flows, including foreign direct investment, to States where the need is greatest, in particular least developed countries, African countries, small island developing States and landlocked developing countries, in accordance with their national plans and programmes

10.c By 2030, reduce to less than 3 per cent the transaction costs of migrant remittances and eliminate remittance corridors with costs higher than 5 per cent.

Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) Series: Goal 9

Goal 9

Goal Nine: Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and foster innovation

SDG Nine focuses on the physical elements that surround the global population, which are integral in achieving sustainable development, but can be forgotten when weighed against issues such as healthcare and poverty. This goal emphasizes not only the most commonly thought of forms of infrastructure, such as roads and railways, but also the more modern versions such as internet access. Africa currently has approximately 330 million internet users with a 29% penetration rate on the continent and the numbers are growing. Still, this is relatively low in comparison to the rest of the world, with penetration rates of 40% in Asia, 73% in Europe, 52% in the Middle East and 55% in Latin America, for example. The upward progress, however, is a good sign for achieving the target of universal access.

This goal also emphasizes the need to increase industrialization, especially in developing country contexts. This is particularly relevant for Africa, with most countries in sub-Saharan Africa’s manufacturing share of output having fallen during the past 25 years. Some countries are already making significant progress, however, with Ethiopia’s manufacturing having grown at a rate of approximately 10% per year from 2006-2014, for example. Tanzania has also experienced growth in manufacturing output at 7.5% per year from 2007-2012.

Proposed Targets:

9.1 Develop quality, reliable, sustainable and resilient infrastructure, including regional and transborder infrastructure, to support economic development and human well-being, with a focus on affordable and equitable access for all

9.2 Promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and, by 2030, significantly raise industry’s share of employment and gross domestic product, in line with national circumstances, and double its share in least developed countries

9.3 Increase the access of small-scale industrial and other enterprises, in particular in developing countries, to financial services, including affordable credit, and their integration into value chains and markets

9.4 By 2030, upgrade infrastructure and retrofit industries to make them sustainable, with increased resource-use efficiency and greater adoption of clean and environmentally sound technologies and industrial processes, with all countries taking action in accordance with their respective capabilities

9.5 Enhance scientific research, upgrade the technological capabilities of industrial sectors in all countries, in particular developing countries, including, by 2030, encouraging innovation and substantially increasing the number of research and development workers per 1 million people and public and private research and development spending

9.a Facilitate sustainable and resilient infrastructure development in developing countries through enhanced financial, technological and technical support to African countries, least developed countries, landlocked developing countries and small island developing States

9.b Support domestic technology development, research and innovation in d4eveloping countries, including by ensuring a conducive policy environment for, inter alia, industrial diversification and value addition to commodities

9.c Significantly increase access to information and communications technology and strive to provide universal and affordable access to the Internet in least developed countries by 2020

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